The NF-kB pathway is constitutively active in multiple myeloma and other human tumors. The activation is based mainly on mechanisms that lead to an increased level or to the activation of the NF-kB inducing kinase (NIK). Mechanisms include the deletion of genes encoding proteins that inhibit NIK, amplification of genes coding for NIK activating proteins, or amplification of the gene coding for NIK itself. In addition, mutations in a gene coding for a miRNA that is responsible for lowering the level of the NIK gene transcript can lead to the increase in the NIK protein level and thus to the activation of NF-kB.

NF-κB pathways, Part 2
NF-κB pathways, Part 1